Annex A - Group Research Proposal (Science)

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Eldrick Sim, Josiah Fan, Roid Shafiq, Vernen Lim

CLASS:S2-03

Group: G
1) Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[ X ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research

e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum

[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)

e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[ ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics

e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene  

[    ] Observational and exploratory research

e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research

e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  



Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
Different coloured lights do affect the rate of photosynthesis of Cabomba.



Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
We are measuring the relationship between the colour of light and their rate of photosynthesis.


Measure a value
We measure the rate of photosynthesis through measuring the depth of the air bubble accumulated at the top of the test tube in the apparatus





2) Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:

Title: Effects of different coloured lights on the rate of photosynthesis of Cabomba.

A. Question or problem being addressed
Gases in the atmosphere disallows heat from reflecting of the earth back to space, heating up the earth. These gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide etc. are known as greenhouse gases. So, by growing massive amounts of plants and letting them photosynthesise, we would be able to decrease the amount of greenhouse gas which in return lessen global warming. But not only that, by finding out which wavelength of light helps the plant achieve maximum rate of photosynthesis we would be able to utilise them to further reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.

Research Questions:
1) How will different colours of light affect the plants’ rate of photosynthesis?
2) Why will the different colours of light affect plants’ rate of photosynthesis?
3) How can this be applied in the real world


Independent variable:
-Different coloured lights.
Dependent variable:
-Output of oxygen


Our constants are:
(a) Type of water used
(b) Amount of water
(c) Type of plant
(d) Brightness of lights
(e) Quantity of plant
(f) Temperature
(g) Size of apparatus for experiment


B.Our hypothesis
The hypothesis is that the Purple and red light are most useful for the photosynthesis because the chlorophyll molecules of chloroplasts absorb purple and red light while green will be the least useful for photosynthesis as the plant reflects green light.
C) Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipment list:
-7 strips of different coloured LEDS
-3 similar fully grown cabomba (cut equally into 8 pieces, 3 for more accurate results)
-8 Glass beakers
-8 Glass test tubes
-8 Glass funnels
-Power source
-Wires to connect power to bulbs
-4 Boxes











Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
1. Set up Beaker, plant, funnel and test tube as shown below.
Set up.jpeg
The sodium hydrogen carbonate provides more Carbon Dioxide for photosynthesis.
2. Put 1 setup in each box in this manner   ------------------->


3.  Place the setup for 24 hours


4. Shake the test tube and funnel to allow the bubbles trapped under plant escape to the top.


5. Measure the amount of oxygen produced every 24 hours by taking the depth of oxygen in the test tube.


6. Repeat the experiment 2 times for more accurate results.



• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


1.As this experiment involves liquids, there is an imminent risk of spillage of the liquids, causing the experiment environment to be affected. (Make the boxes wet, soft, incapable of holding weight). To avoid this, apparatus should be used properly and with utmost care so as to not cause this to happen. Overfilling the beakers may cause spillage, thus it has to be avoided at all cost. As spillage of water may result, in (Risk 2) as well, it should be a point to be taken note of.


2.As the experiment involves electricity and water, there may be a risk of electric shocks if the electrical components are handled with wet hands or if they simply come into contact with water. To ensure this does not happen, apparatus have to be handled carefully and latex gloves are to be worn at all times while handling the apparatus to avoid shocks in case the water comes into contact with the electricity.






3.  As this experiment involves liquids, there is a risk of mosquito breeding, therefore we have to change the
water every few days or put a layer of oil over the water’s surface. As the risk of dengue being spread by aedes mosquito is evident, we must ensure that they do not breed mosquito in our apparatus to not spread the disease as well as not contaminate our experiment and cause inaccurate results.


4. After a few tests the LEDs are found to overheat quickly resulting in the silicon melting and sticking to other LEDs, the stick strips on the back also melted due to exposure to high heat. (Solution to combat this problem would be to make a rectangular clear plastic case that would be filled with water and the LEDs placed in it would ensure that the water would absorb the heat so lights would not overheat too quickly.) These lights were meant to be operated underwater so the risk of electric shock would be lowered.







• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypothesis


Example:


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.

1)NGUYEN,A. (2012).How light color affects the rate of photosynthesis of chloroplasts using spectrophotometers. (NGUYEN,2012)



2)ANASTASIA,R. (2003). Effect of Different Colored Lights on Photosynthesis


3)ASHLEY,E. (1999). The Effects of Different Colored Light on Elodea as Measured by Photosynthesis


4)KRISTIE,K. (2012). Color & Light Effects on Photosynthesis


5)DAVID,W. (2011). Plant Growth Factors: Light





Wavelengths of LEDs05led.pngled_tech_chromatic_chart.jpg


700-
640
Red
     
640-
625
Orange-
Red
     
625-
615
Orange
     
615-
600
Amber
     
600-
585
Yellow
     
585-
555
Yellow-
Green
     
555-
520
Green
     
520-
480
Blue-Green
     
480-
450
Blue
     
450-
430
Indigo
     
430-
395
Violet
     


Screen Shot 2014-07-25 at 11.47.14 am.png


Actual wavelengths
Colours
Wavelength
High Eff. Red
635
Amber
612
Incandescent White
3500K
Cool White
6500 + K
High Eff. Green
565
Super Blue
470
Purple (around the same as red)
635
Dark (no light)
0


Diagram of Apparatus
25-27 July 2014
First few tests at Josiah’s house.


Test 1 Procedures:
Elodea was placed in setup with water level below funnel spout, all LEDs were turned on and shining at the plant for 5 hours, no results.


Test 2 Procedures:
Same untouched setup was placed with a white LED shining at it for 11 hours, no results.


Test 3 Procedures:
Setup now with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate in water put in sunlight for 8 hours, no results. Water level below funnel too


Test 4 Procedures:
Setup with water level above funnel spout, Elodea with cut from end about 5mm, with all LEDs shining for 2 hours, a bubble formed on the tip of the cut end.


Test 5 Procedures:
Same untouched set up as Test 4 was put in yellow light for 11 hours,no results.


Test 5 Procedures:
Elodea piece cut until only 5 cm remaining with cut end facing up towards funnel spout with water level above funnel spout. Setup placed with all LEDs shining. Small bubbles stick to the wall of the funnel spout. A larger bubble has formed at the top of the test tube. Left for 5 hours.


Test 6 Procedures:
Setup was left overnight for 11 hours in darkness the size of the bubble did not increase significantly.


Test 7 Procedures;
Due to the test tube breaking we had to use just the funnel with its spout covered with bluetack. This time we used Cabomba as Elodea didn’t bubble at a significant enough rate.










Progress:
Lesson 1: -Learn what iss is about
Lesson 2: -Research proposal
               - Generating research questions
Lesson 3: -Formulating Hypothesis
Lesson 4: -Lit review
Lesson 5: -Bibliography
Lesson 6: -Experimental design
Lesson 7: -Finalise research proposal
Lesson 8: -Submission of Research proposal
Lesson 9: -Redo proposal
Lesson 10: -Touch up on proposal
Lesson 11: -Resubmit proposal
                 -Come across Standard Deviation
Lesson 12: -Read up on Stand Deviation
                 -Touch up on proposal
Lesson 13: -Preparation for experiment
               -Ordered equipment
Lesson 14:-Source for boxes
               -Touch up on proposal
Lesson 15:-Arrival of equipment
                -Test equipment
                
Lesson 16:-Sort equipment
                -Redo risks
Lesson 17:-Draw diagrams
Lesson 18:-Set up the set up
               -Arrange boxes
               -Paste lights
               -Tape wires down
Lesson 19:-Set up apparatus
Lesson 20:-Update Logbook
Lesson 21:-Touch up on proposal
Lesson 22:-Update Logbook
Lesson 23:-Update Logbook
Lesson 24:-Update Blog
Lesson 25-Update Blog
Lesson 26-Plants arrive, Set up in apparatus
Lesson 27- Start Experiment
Lesson 28- Measure results
Lesson 29-Measure results

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